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Direct Energy Conversion from Hydrocarbon Fuels using Electromagnetic Waves

Energy of hydrocarbon fuels converted directly from chemical form to electrical form
Patent application no. -  336/BOM/99
A C - H bond is formed by mutual sharing of an electron and hence no electron is released when the bond breaks, instead energy is released in the form of heat.

To break a molecular bond, some energy is required which is done by igniting the fuel. The energy provided is activation energy. When activation energy is provided to the fuel molecule, the C- H bond breaks and releases heat energy.

When a bond breaks the electron shared by carbon and hydrogen atom goes back to the hydrogen atom. An electron goes into lower orbit of the H atom, which is the lowest energy state. The electron in covalent bond the energy it has is not sufficient for an electron to escape from the atom, hence electron emits the extra energy and jumps to the lower Energy State. Therefore the hydrocarbon fuel gives energy in the form of heat.
Invention (What is New)
To extract energy from hydrocarbon fuel in the form of electricity, the shared electron in C - H bond should have sufficient energy so that it can escape from H atom leaving behind an H+ ion. (the free electron and H+ ion form an electric current source). To make an electron jump out of C - H bond, sufficient amount of energy is required to be provided from outside. (catalytic quantum ) The catalytic quantum of energy provided externally makes an electron 'stronger ' to escape from the hydrogen atom. If this is achieved then the electron has energy that is equal to sum of bond energy and the catalytic quantum. Thus, Energy of an electron = Catalytic quantum + Bond energy . The catalytic quantum is used repeatedly to extract bond energies of fuel molecules in the form of a free electrons (electrical energy).
The catalytic quantum used for the next energy conversion is generated from the energy extracted before (hence the energy quantum to be provided from outside is catalytic quantum).
Diagram & Description
Direct Energy Conversion
Ionization energy for an isolated H atom is 1310 kJ / mole. for one H atom, ionization energy is 2.1749 x 10-18 J/ atom. When hydrogen forms a bond with carbon atom, the shared electron has some energy in the bond. The energy in one C -H bond is 0.3699 x 10-18 J / bond . To ionize the H atom, the amount of external energy (catalytic quantum) is provided which is equal to the difference between the bond energy of C - H bond and ionization energy of the H atom.
            => Ionization energy - Bond energy = Catalytic quantum

                  (2.1749 x 10-18) J/ atom - (0.3699 x 10-18) J/ CH bond = 1.805 x 10-18 J/ atom

Thus the external energy provided is 1.805 x 10-18 J / atom. i.e. per C-H bond since each bond has one hydrogen atom.
The energy is provided in the form of electromagnetic waves. The frequency and wavelength of the electromagnetic wave is,
           E= hf, (E= energy of wave, h= Plank's constant, f= frequency of wave.)            
        
1.805 x 10-18 J = 6.625 x 10-34 x frequency of wave
Hence f= 2.7 x 1015 cycles / second therefore wavelength is c/f,
c = speed of electromagnetic wave = 2.97 x 108 m/s
wavelength is 1.090 x 10-7 m = 1090o A.

An electron in C - H bond has only 17% (0.3699 x 10-18) of the energy required to become a free electron. The remaining 83% (1.805 x 10-18 J ) energy is provided from externally in the form of electromagnetic waves.

(Energy in C-H bond) + (catalytic quantum)= Ionization energy + (H ion)

Working:

The chemical energy stored in Carbon-Hydrogen bonds of liquid hydrocarbon fuel molecule is converted into electrical energy. The liquid hydrocarbon fuel is exposed to collimated electromagnetic waves in absence of air. The wavelength of incident collimated electromagnetic wave is 1090o A units(1090 x 10-10 m). The electromagnetic wave transfer its energy to the electron in the chemical bond between Carbon and Hydrogen. The electron absorbs the energy and jumps out of the hydrogen atom.

The Hydrogen atom becomes a positive Hydrogen ion. And the electron becomes a free electron. The liquid fuel is kept in a magnetic field while it is exposed to electromagnetic waves. The magnetic field directs these free electrons towards a metal plate, that acts as a metal electron collector and as an electrode. The positive Hydrogen ions are directed towards a synthetic membrane (proton exchange membrane). The synthetic membrane passes only positive Hydrogen ions through it. While passing through the membrane, positive Hydrogen ion gains an electron from the membrane and combines with Oxygen atoms in the air which is on the other side of the membrane (the Hydrogen ion gives it's positive electrical charge to the membrane).

The membrane, which also acts as an electrode, gets positive electrical charge and the metal electron collector becomes negatively charged due to excess electrons that are collected on the metal plate. The two electrodes are connected through an electrical circuit. An electrical current flows through the circuit, which is energy source for useful purpose.

Part of the electrical energy is consumed to generate electromagnetic waves that are used for energy conversion and remaining part of energy is available for use.
IN THE DRAWING
'1 ' is collimated electromagnetic wave source.
'2' is fuel molecule.
'3' is proton exchange membrane that passes only positively charged Hydrogen
ions.
'4' is a metal electron collector.
'5' are permanent magnets .
'6' is a fuel container .
'7' is a waste Carbon collected at the bottom of container.
'8' is a continues airflow.
'9' is a water molecule formed at the outer side of the membrane .
'10' is Minimum fuel level.
'11' is a battery in which the converted electrical energy is stored .
'12' is liquid hydrocarbon fuel.
‘13’ is collimated electromagnetic wave.
Direct Energy Conversion
CALCULATION

1. For CH4 i.e. , the caloric value is 55700 kJ/ Kg.    Molecular weight of methane ( CH4 ) is  { (12 x 1) + ( 1 x 4 ) } = 16

           Since CH 4 delivers 55700 kJ/ Kg = 55700 J/g
           One mole of methane delivers 55700 J x 16 = 891200 J/ mole.
           Each mole contains 6.023 x 10
23 molecules, Energy delivered per molecule is = (891200 / 6.023 x 1023 )J / molecule . = 1.4796 x 10^23 J / molecule.

           Each molecule of CH 4 has four C – H bonds

           Therefore one C- H bond in methane has energy ( 1.4796 x 10
-18 ) / 4 = 0.3699 x 10-18 J/ C – H bond.

               When one C-H bond breaks the amount of energy released is 0.3699 x 10
-18 J   ------------------------- I

2. The ionization energy of an isolated Hydrogen atom is 1310 kJ / mole = 1310000 J / mole

           Hence ionization energy per atom is (1310000 / 6.023 x 10
23) J / atom = 2.1749 x 10-18 J / atom ------------------------II

            From I …… one C-H bond has energy equal to 0.3699 x 10
-18 J
            From II……. one-H atom needs 2.1749 x 10
-18 J to get ionized.

When C-H bond breaks, to ionize H atom (to extract an electron from H atom) an amount of energy to be provided from outside is equal to the difference between ionization energy of isolated Hydrogen atom and the energy stored in the C - H bond.

              catalytic energy quantum = ionization energy – C-H bond energy = (2.1749 x 10
-18 J/C-H bond) - (0.3699 x 10-18 J/C-H bond)  = 1.805 x 10-18 J/C-H bond.

The energy provided from outside enables the electron (shared by carbon and hydrogen atom in C-H bond) to escape from the H atom leaving behind an H+ ion and carbon. The electron and an H+ ion are used to form an electric current. The external energy (catalytic quantum) is provided in the form of electromagnetic waves where energy of wave = 1.805 x 10
-18 J

Since ,
Energy = h x frequency of wave, h = Plank’s constant = 6.625 x 10
-34
 
            1.805 x 10-18 J = 6.625 x 10
-34 x frequency
            frequency = 2.724 x 1015 cycles per second.

            speed of an electromagnetic wave is 2.97 x 10
8 m /s

the wavelength of the wave = ( 2.97 x 10
8 / 2.724 x 1015 ) m. = 1090 x 10-10 = 1090 0 A.

Following are the details of the energies for different fuel quantities

 1 gm. octane delivers energy of 35170 J by breaking C-H bonds
 Catalytic quanta required is 171650 J
 It generates 206824 J in the form of electricity (catalytic quanta + C-H bond energy)

           Total electrical energy - Catalytic quanta = Energy available for use.

To generate 1 kW energy the catalytic energy quanta needed is (171650 / 35170) J = 4.8796 times the energy needed i.e. 4.8796 kW

Thus catalytic quanta to be provided is 4.8796 times the amount of energy needed from octane
USES

This conversion process is useful in automobiles in which liquid hydrocarbon fuel is used. The automobiles use an internal combustion engine to generate kinetic energy from fuels. The losses involved in internal combustion engines are about 60%.

The Direct Energy conversion system for hydrocarbon fuel would provide a better option to an Internal Combustion Engine, thus avoiding energy losses and pollution.