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Direct  energy conversion  by  electromagnetic  waves 
                 
Patent application no. - 336/BOM/99

A  C - H bond is formed by mutual sharing of an electron and hence when bond breaks no electron is released , instead energy is released in the form of heat.

To break a molecular bond, amount of energy is provided (which is done by igniting the fuel). The energy provided is activation energy. When activation energy is provided to the fuel molecule, the C- H bond breaks and releases heat energy.

When a bond breaks the electron shared by carbon and hydrogen atom goes back to the hydrogen atom. An electron goes into K orbit of the H atom, which is the lowest energy state. When electron is in covalent bond it has more energy than the energy it has in the lowest energy orbit. When bond breaks the energy in SP2 hybridized orbit is not sufficient for an electron to escape from the atom, hence electron emits the extra energy in the form of heat and jumps to the lower Energy State. Therefore the hydrocarbon fuel gives energy in the form of heat.

To extract energy from hydrocarbon fuel in the form of electricity, the shared electron in C - H bond should have sufficient energy so that it can escape from H atom leaving behind an H+ ion. (the free electron and H+ ion form an electric current source)

To make an electron jump out of C - H  bond, the electron need sufficient amount of energy from which is provided from outside. (catalytic quantum of energy)

The catalytic quantum of energy provided from outside makes an electron 'stronger ' to escape from the hydrogen atom.

If this is achieved then the electron has energy that is equal to sum of bond energy plus  the catalytic quantum of energy provided externally.

Thus

           Energy of an electron  = Catalytic quantum  +  Bond energy

The catalytic energy quantum provided externally is used repeatedly to extract bond energies of fuel molecules in the form of a free electrons (electrical energy).

The catalytic quantum used for the next energy conversion is generated from the energy extracted before (hence the energy quantum to be provided from outside is catalytic quantum).

To extract the bond energy of C - H bond in electrical form, the H atom in the carbon hydrogen molecule should be ionized so that an electron and an H+ ion is obtained that forms an electric current.

Ionization energy for an isolated H atom is 1310 kJ / mole.
    for one H atom,  ionization energy is  2.1749 x  10-18 J/ atom

 When hydrogen forms a bond with carbon atom, the shared electron has some energy in the bond.

The energy in one C -H bond is   0.3699 x 10-18 J /  bond .

The electron gets the energy stored in the bond but this amount of energy is not sufficient for electron to become a free electron. Hence to ionize the H atom amount of external energy is  provided which is equal to the difference between the bond energy of C - H bond and  ionization energy of the H atom.

=> Ionization energy  - Bond energy  = Catalytic quantum

(2.1749 x 10-18) J/ atom  -  (0.3699 x 10-18) J/ CH bond  = 1.805 x 10-18 J/ atom

Thus the external energy provided is 1.805 x 10-18 J / atom.

i.e. per C-H bond since each bond has one hydrogen atom.

The energy is provided in the form of electromagnetic waves. The frequency and  wavelength of the electromagnetic wave is,

 E= hf, Where; E= energy of wave, h= Plank's constant, f= frequency of wave.

   1.805 x 10-18 J = 6.625 x 10-34   x frequency of wave

 Hence  f= 2.7 x 1015  cycles / second   therefore  wavelength is  c/f,
c = speed of electromagnetic wave = 2.97 x 108 m/s

wavelength is  1.090 x 10-7 m  =  10900 A unit.

The wave of the wavelength 10900 A is an ultraviolet wave

An electron in C - H bond has only 17% (0.3699 x 10-18) of the energy required to become a free electron. The remaining 83% (1.805 x 10-18 J ) energy is provided from externally in the form of electromagnetic waves.

            
             
 
             

 

Energy in C - H bond   +   External catalytic quantum  =  ionization energy        H + ion

            17 %                           83 %                                       100 %             and   electron ‘e’

The catalytic quantum of energy does not form the part of energy to be used and it is used to extract the energy in the electrical form

Working:

The chemical energy stored in Carbon-Hydrogen bonds of liquid hydrocarbon fuel molecule is converted into electrical energy. The liquid hydrocarbon fuel is exposed to collimated electromagnetic waves in absence of air. The wavelength of incident collimated electromagnetic wave is 1090o A units(1090 x 10-10 m). The electromagnetic wave give its energy to the electron that forms the chemical bond between Carbon and Hydrogen. The electron in the Carbon - Hydrogen bond absorbs the energy and goes out of the hydrogen atom. After an electron goes out of Hydrogen atom, the Hydrogen atom becomes a positive Hydrogen ion. An electron, which goes out of Hydrogen atom, becomes a free electron. The liquid fuel is kept in a magnetic field while it is exposed to  electromagnetic waves. The magnetic field directs these free electrons towards a metal plate, that acts as a metal electron collector and as an electrode. The positive Hydrogen ions are directed towards a synthetic membrane (proton exchange membrane). The synthetic membrane passes only positive Hydrogen ions through it. While passing through the membrane, positive Hydrogen ion gains an electron from the membrane and combines with Oxygen atoms in the air which is on the other side of the membrane (the Hydrogen ion gives it's positive electrical charge to the membrane).

The membrane, which also acts as an electrode, gets positive electrical charge and the metal electron collector becomes negatively charged due to excess electrons that are collected on the metal plate. The two electrodes are connected through an electrical circuit. An electrical current flows through the circuit, which is energy source for useful purpose.

The electromagnetic waves of  10900  A unit gives a quantum of energy  equals to

1.805 x  10-18   J.

(E = hf, E = energy of wave, h= plank's constant, f= frequency of the wave,

  f= c/ wavelength , c = speed of electromagnetic wave )

The energy quantum is added to the energy that an electron has in Carbon-Hydrogen bond. An electron has energy equal to 0.3699 x 10-18 J  in the Carbon - Hydrogen bond. Now the electron has the total energy equal to sum of the two energy quanta 

that is  [( 1.805 x 10-18 ) + ( 0.3699 x 10-18  ) ] J =  2.1749 x 10-18  J.

This energy is sufficient for an electron to go out from the Carbon - Hydrogen bond leaving behind an unstable Carbon, positive Hydrogen ion, and become a free electron.

The Carbon is collected at the bottom of the fuel container.

Part of the electrical energy is consumed to generate electromagnetic waves that are used for energy conversion and remaining part of energy is available for use.

 IN THE DRAWING  I

'1 '  is collimated electromagnetic wave source.
'2'   is fuel molecule.
'3'   is proton exchange membrane that passes only positively  charged Hydrogen 
      ions.
'4'   is a metal electron collector.
'5'   are permanent magnets .
'6'   is a fuel container .
'7'   is a waste Carbon collected at the bottom of container.
'8'   is a continues airflow.
'9'   is a water molecule formed at the outer side of the membrane .
'10' is Minimum fuel level.
'11' is a battery in which the converted electrical energy is stored .
'12' is liquid hydrocarbon fuel.
‘13’ is collimated electromagnetic wave.

USES

This conversion process is useful in automobiles in which liquid hydrocarbon fuel is used. The automobiles use an internal combustion engine to generate kinetic energy from fuels. The losses involved in  internal combustion engines are about 60%.

The Direct Energy conversion system for hydrocarbon fuel would provide a better option to an Internal Combustion Engine, thus avoiding energy losses and pollution.

CALCULATIONS

   1.  For   CH4   i.e.             , the  caloric value is 55700 kJ/ Kg.

            Molecular weight of methane ( CH4 ) is

 { (12 x 1) + ( 1 x 4 ) } = 16

Since CH 4 delivers 55700 kJ/ Kg = 55700 J/g

Hence one mole of methane delivers 55700 J x 16  = 891200  J/ mole.

Each mole contains 6.023 x 1023 molecules,

Energy delivered per molecule is   =  (891200 / 6.023 x 1023 )J /  molecule  .
                                                         =  1.4796 x 10-18  J / molecule.

Each molecule of CH 4 has four C – H bonds

Therefore one C- H bond in methane has energy

        ( 1.4796 x 10-18 ) / 4   = 0.3699 x 10-18 J/ C – H bond.

When one C-H bond breaks the amount of energy released is 0.3699 x 10-18 J

                                                                                  ------------------------- I

2.      The ionization energy of an isolated Hydrogen atom is

 1310 kJ / mole = 1310000 J / mole
Hence ionization energy per atom is (1310000 / 6.023 x 1023) J / atom
                                   =  2.1749 x 10-18 J / atom ------------------------II

From  I …… one  C-H bond has energy equal to   0.3699 x 10-18 J

From II……. one-H atom needs 2.1749 x 10-18 J to get ionized.

When C-H bond breaks, to ionize H atom (to extract an electron from H atom) an amount of energy to be provided from outside is equal to the difference between ionization energy of isolated Hydrogen atom and the energy stored in the C - H bond.

That is catalytic energy quantum = ionization energy  –  C-H bond energy

           =  2.1749 x 10-18 J/C-H bond   -    0.3699 x 10-18 J/C-H bond

Catalytic energy quantum  = 1.805 x  10-18 J/C-H bond.

The energy provided from outside enables the electron (shared by carbon and hydrogen atom in C-H bond) to escape from the H atom leaving behind an H+ ion and carbon. The electron and an H+ ion are used to form an electric current.

The external energy (catalytic quantum) is provided in the form of electromagnetic waves where energy of wave = 1.805 x 10-18 J

Since , 
Energy = h x frequency of wave,  h = Plank’s constant = 6.625 x  10-34  
                 1.805 x  10-18 J = 6.625 x  10-34  x  frequency
                hence,  frequency = 2.724 x 1015  cycles per second.

speed of an electromagnetic wave is 2.97 x 108  m /s

the wavelength of the wave    =  ( 2.97 x 10/  2.724 x 1015 )  m.
                                                            = 1090 x 10-10 m    = 1090 0 A.
Thus the wavelength of the wave to be used to provide the catalytic energy quantum is 1090 0 A.  As this wavelength is more than 70000 A, it is in the ultraviolet spectrum.

Following are the details of the energies for different fuel quantities

When 1 gm octane is used, it delivers energy equal to 35170 J by breaking C-H bonds

The catalytic energy quanta needed is 171650 J

It generates 206824 J in the form of electricity that is catalytic quanta and C-H bond energy together.

Total electrical energy - Catalytic quanta = Energy available for use.

To generate 1 kW energy the catalytic energy quanta needed is (171650 / 35170) J

=  4.8796  times the energy needed   i.e.  4.8796  kW

Thus catalytic quanta to be provided is 4.8796 times the amount of energy needed from octane




 

 

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